Dalia Antiniene, Rosita Lekaviciene


This study explores relationships among high school students’ emotional intelligence, subjective health status, depressiveness, anxiety and psychological well-being. Participants were 16–19 years old students (n=371) from high schools in various regions of Lithuania. The results suggested that total emotional intelligence positively correlates with psychological well-being and negatively correlates with subjective health status, depressiveness, and anxiety subscales.


anxiety, depressiveness, emotional intelligence, psychological well-being, subjective health status.


Ali, A., Buzdar, M. A., Perveen, S., & Ramzan, M. (2016). What builds emotional intelligence? Fixing the role of personal and social well-being. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences (PJSS), 36(2), 959-967.

Augusto-Landa, J. M., Pulido-Martos, M., & Lopez-Zafra, E. (2011). Does perceived emotional intelligence and optimism/ pessimism predict psychological well-being? Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 463-474.doi: 10.1007/s10902-010-9209-7

Baltes, P. B., Staudinger, U. M., & Lindenberger, U. (1999). Lifespan psychology: Theory and application to intellectual functioning. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 471-507.

Bar-On, R. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integral part of positive psychology. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 54-62.

Brackett, M. A., & Mayer, J. D. (2003). Convergent, discriminant and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 1147-1158.

Brackett, M. A., Mayer, J. D., & Warner, R. M. (2004). Emotional intelligence and its relation to everyday behaviour. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 1387-1402.

Carmeli, A., Yitzhak-Halevy, M., & Weisberg, J. (2009). The relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological wellbeing. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(1), 66-78. doi: /10.1108/02683940910922546

Ciarrochi, J., Deane, F. P., & Anderson, S. (2002). Emotional intelligence moderates the relationship between stress and mental health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 197-209.

Ciarrochi,J., Chan, A.Y., & Bajgar, J. (2001). Measuring emotional intelligence in adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences, 31, 1105-1119. main.pdf?_tid=f5456134-f537-11e7-980c-00000aab0f6b&acdnat=1515500815_a018600d429f1772f5e7fbd3f32fa5a5

Derdikman-Eiron, R., Indredavik, M. S., Bratberg, G. H., Taraldsen, G., Bakken, I. J., & Colton, M. (2011). Gender differences in subjective well-being, self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with symptoms of anxiety and depression: Findings from the Nord-Trøndelag health study. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52, 261-267.

Diener, E. (1998). Subjective well-being and personality. In D. F. Barone, M. Hersen, & V. B. Van Hassett (Eds.), Advanced personality (pp. 311-334). New York: Plenum.

Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and proposal for a National Index. American Psychologist, 55, 34-43.

Durlak, J., A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., & Schellinger, K. B. (2011). The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432.

Farnia, F., & Nafukho, F. M. (2016). Emotional intelligence research within human resource development scholarship. European Journal of Training and Development, 40(2), 90-110.

Fernandez-Berrocal, P., Alcaide, R., Extremera, N., & Pizarro, D. (2006). The role of emotional intelligence in anxiety and depression among adolescents. Individual Differences Research, 4(1), 16-27. Retrieved from

Garg, R., Levin, E., & Tremblay, L. (2016). Emotional intelligence: Impact on post-secondary academic achievement. Social Psychology of Education, 19, 627-642. doi: 10.1007/s11218-016-9338-x

Goleman, D. (2003). Emocinis intelektas. Kodėl jis gali būti svarbesnis nei IQ (Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ). Vilius: Presvika.

Higgs, M. J., & Dulewicz, S. V. (2007). Relationships between psychological well-being, emotional intelligence and personality. Henley on Thames, GB, Henley Management College (Henley Working Paper Series HWP 0717). Accessed at:

Jafri, M. H., Dem, C., & Choden, S. (2016). Emotional intelligence and employee creativity: Moderating role of proactive personality and organizational climate. Business Perspectives and Research, 4(1), 54-66.

Jahangard, L., Haghighi, M., Bajoghli, H., Ahmadpanah, M., Ghaleiha, A., Zarrabian, M. K. & Brand, S. (2012). Training emotional intelligence improves both emotional intelligence and depressive symptoms in inpatients with borderline personality disorder and depression. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 16(3), 197-204. doi: 10.3109/13651501.2012.687454

Kaplan, G., & Baron-Epel, O. (2003). What lies behind the subjective evaluation of health status? Social Science & Medicine, 56, 1669-1676. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(02)00179-X

Karim, J., & Weisz, R. (2010). Cross-cultural research on the reliability and validity of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Cross-Cultural Research, 44(4) 374-404.

Lanciano, T., Curcia, A., Kafetsiosb, K., Eliaa, L., & Zammunerc, V. (2012) Attachment and dysfunctional rumination: The mediating role of Emotional Intelligence abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(6), 753-758.

Marguerite, S., Laurent, B., Marine, A., Tanguy, L., Karine, B., Pascal, A., & Xavier, Z. (2017). Actor-partner interdependence analysis in depressed patient-caregiver dyads: Influence of emotional intelligence and coping strategies on anxiety and depression. Psychiatry Research, 258, 396-401. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.08.082

Martins, A., Ramalho, N., & Morin, E. (2010). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 554-564.

Mathivanan, D. (2013). Comparison of male and female differences in emotional intelligence among trained univerisities athletes of Lusaka Province, Zambia. European Researcher, 55, 7-2. DOI: 10.13187/er.2013.55.1938

Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. S. (2011). Reading facial expressions of emotion. Psychological Science Agenda, 5, 10-18. Retrieved from

Matsumoto, D., Yoo, S. H., & Nakagawa, S. (2008). Culture, emotion regulation, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(6), 925-937. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.94.6.925

Menec, V. H., & Chipperfield, J. G. (2001). A prospective analysis of the relation between self-rated health and healthcare use among elderly Canadians. Canadian Journal on Aging-Revue Canadienne Du Vieillissement, 20, 293-306. doi: 10.1017/S0714980800012794

Mikolajczak, M., Luminet, O., Leroy, C., & Roy, E. (2007). Psychometric properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Factor structure, reliability, construct, and incremental validity in a French-speaking population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88, 338-353.

Mikolajczak, M., Petrides, K. V., Coumans N., & Luminet O. (2009). The moderating effect of trait emotional intelligence on mood deterioration following laboratory-induced stress, International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 9(3), 455-477.

Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2008) Adult attachment and affect regulation. In J. Cassidy, P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment (2nd ed., pp. 503-531). New York: Guilford Press.

Moksnes, U. K., Rannestad, T., Byrne, D., & Espnes, G. A. (2010). The association between stress, sense of coherence and subjective health complaints in adolescents: Sense of coherence as a potential moderator. Stress and Health, 27, 157-165. doi: 10.1002/smi.1353

Nelis, D., Kotsou, I., Quoidback, J., Hansenne, M., Weytens, F., Dupuis, P., & Mikolajczak, M. (2011). Increasing emotional competence improves psychological and physical well-being, social relationships, and employability. Emotion, 11(2), 354-366. doi: 10.1037/a0021554

Nelis, D., Quoidbach, J., Mikolajczak, M., & Hansenne M. (2009). Increasing emotional intelligence: (How) is it possible? Personality and Individual Differences, 47(1), 36-41.

Petanidou, D., Daskagianni, E., Dimitrakaki, C., Kolaitis, G., & Tountas, Y. (2013). The role of perceived well-being in the family, school and peer context in adolescents' subjective health complaints: Evidence from a Greek cross-sectional study. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, 7(1), 7-17. doi: 10.1186/1751-0759-7-17

Petrides, K. V., Mikolajczak, M., Mavroveli, S., Sanchez-Ruiz, M.-J., Furnham, A., & Pérez-González, J. C. (2016). Developments in trait emotional intelligence research. Emotion Review, 8(4), 335-341.

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081. Retrieved from

Ryff, C. D. (1995). Psychological well-being in adult life. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(4), 99-104. Retrieved from

Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719-727.

Saevareid, H. I., Thygesen, E., Nygaard, H. A., & Lindstrom, T. C. (2007). Does sense of coherence affect the relationship between self-rated health and health status in a sample of community-dwelling frail elderly people? Aging & Mental Health, 11(6), 658-667. doi:10.1080/13607860701368513

Saklofske, D. H., Austin, E. J., & Minski, P. S. (2003). Factor structure and validity of a trait emotional intelligence measure. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 707-721.

Salami, S. O. (2011). Personality and psychological well-being of adolescents: The moderating role of emotional intelligence. Social Behavior and personality: An International Journal, 39(6), 785-794.

Salami, S. O. (2010). Emotional intelligence, self-efficacy, psychological well-being and students’ attitudes: Implications for quality education. European Journal of Educational Studies, 2(3). 247-257. Retrieved from

Sánchez-Álvareza, N., Extremera, N., & Fernández-Berrocal, P. (2016). The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 11(3), 276-285. Retrieved from

Sharif, F., Rezaie, S., Keshavarzi, S., Mansoori, P., & Ghadakpoor, S. (2013). Teaching emotional intelligence to intensive care unit nurses and their general health: A randomized clinical trial. The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 4, 141-148. Retrieved from

Spielberger, C. (Ed.) (2004). Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Oxford: Academic Press.

Steyer, R., & Eid, M. (1993). Messen und testen. Berlin: Springer.

Thomas, C., L., Cassady, J., C., & Heller, M., L. (2017). The influence of emotional intelligence, cognitive test anxiety, and coping strategies on undergraduate academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 55, 40-48.

Trinidad, D. R., & Johnson, C. A. (2002). The association between emotional intelligence and early tobacco and alcohol use. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 95-105.

Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2016). Ability emotional intelligence and mental health: Social support as a mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 196-199.

Zysberg, L., Orenshtein, C., & Gimmon, E. (2017). Emotional intelligence, personality, stress, and burnout among educators. International Journal of Stress Management, 24(1), 122-136. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Siauliai university