THE APPLICATION OF THE JOINT STIMULUS CONTROL MODEL IN TEACHING COMPLEX RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE TO CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER /JUNGTINĖS STIMULŲ KONTROLĖS MODELIO PRITAIKYMAS UGDANT VAIKŲ, TURINČIŲ AUTIZMO SPEKTRO SUTRIKIMĄ, KOMPL. KALBOS SUVOKIMĄ

Rita Raudeliūnaitė, Eglė Steponėnienė

Abstract


Lithuanian educators are still not adequately well prepared to teach children with autism spectrum disorder (further in text ASD). There is a lack of research, the access to evidence-based methods is limited, and traditional educational methodological approaches are usually ineffective (Diržytė, Mikulėnaitė & Kalvaitis, 2016; Buivydaitė, Newman & Prasauskienė, 2017).

One of the earliest signs of ASD is failure to develop language and social communication (Mody & Bellieveau, 2013; Arunachalam & Luyster 2016; etc.). Meta-analyses conducted by foreign researchers show that B.F. Skinner’s (1957) verbal behaviour analysis is one of the evidence-based effective methods used for developing language in children with ASD (McPherson et al., 1984; Dymond et al. 2006; Sautter & LeBlanc, 2006; Devine & Petursdottir, 2017). A rapid increase in the prevalence of ASD brings the researchers’ attention to the possibilities of applying this method, however, there are still some areas in verbal behaviour approach remaining, which lack research. Scientific studies in these areas would likely open effective ways for developing language in children with ASD (Devine & Petursdottir, 2017). The researchers (Buivydaitė, Newman & Prasauskienė, 2017) have conducted a review of scientific articles on ASD in the Baltic states (including Lithuania), and the findings of it confirm the lack of such research.

In this study, a single-subject educational experiment was used, during which a joint stimulus control model was applied for developing language in children with ASD, with the main focus being on receptive language acquisition. The object of joint stimulus control is the development of a symmetrical (bi-directional) word-object relation and independent, verbally maintained generalisation with unlearned stimuli. The results of the experiment show that a joint stimulus control model can be applied as an effective mechanism to develop language in children with ASD. In the presence of non-verbal stimuli and rehearsing the names of the stimuli overtly or covertly, the joint stimulus control emerges and, in this way, the complex receptive language perception in children with ASD is developed within  the context of social interaction.

The participants of this experiment were able to emit correct responses with the novel sets of stimuli and were able to apply this mechanism without prompts not only in teaching sessions, but also in other social situations.



Lietuvos pedagogai vis dar nepasiruošę ugdyti autizmo spektro sutrikimų (toliau ASS) turinčius vaikus, trūksta tyrimų, moksliškai pagrįstų metodikų prieinamumas yra ribotas, o tradicinės metodinės prieigos dažnai būna neveiksmingos (Diržytė, Mikulėnaitė ir Kalvaitis, 2016; Buivydaitė, Newman ir Prasauskienė, 2017).

Vienas pagrindinių ASS požymių yra kalbos ir socialinės komunikacijos sutrikimas (Mody ir Bellieveau, 2013; Arunachalam ir Luyster 2016 ir kt.). Kaip rodo užsienio mokslininkų atliktos meta- analizės (McPherson et al., 1984; Dymond et a. 2006; Sautter ir LeBlanc, 2006; Devine ir Petursdottir, 2017), B.F. Skinerio verbalinio elgesio analizė (1957) yra viena iš empiriniais tyrimais pagrįstų veiksmingų ASS turinčių vaikų kalbos ugdymo metodikų. Didėjant ASS turinčių vaikų skaičiui, sparčiai auga mokslininkų susidomėjimas šios metodikos pritaikymo galimybėmis, tačiau vis dar lieka verbalinio elgesio analizės sričių, kurių ištirtumas atvertų efektyvius kelius į ASS turinčių vaikų kalbos ugdymą (Devine ir Petursdottir, 2017). Mokslininkų (Buivydaitė, Newman ir Prasauskienė, 2017) atlikta mokslinių straipsnių ASS tematika analizė Baltijos šalyse, tame tarpe ir Lietuvoje, patvirtina tyrimų stokos problemą.

Šiame straipsnyje aprašomas ugdomasis individualusis eksperimentas, kurio metu taikytas jungtinės stimulų kontrolės modelis ugdant ASS turinčių vaikų kalbą, pagrindinį dėmesį sutelkiant į kalbos suvokimo ugdymą. Jungtinės stimulų kontrolės objektas yra simetrinio (abipusio) žodžio – objekto tarpusavio ryšio vystymas ir savarankiška, verbaliai palaikoma, generalizacija pritaikoma su nemokytais stimulais. Eksperimentu nustatyta,  kad  jungtinės stimulų kontrolės modelis, gali būti efektyvus mechanizmas ugdant ASS turinčių vaikų kalbinius gebėjimus. Matant neverbalinių stimulų vaizdus ir kartojant jų pavadinimus balsu arba sau mintyse pasireiškia jungtinė stimulų kontrolė, ir tokiu būdu ugdomas ASS vaikų kompleksinis receptyvusis suvokimas socialinio bendravimo kontekste. Naudodamiesi šiuo įrankiu, eksperimento dalyviai  gebėjo teisingai atlikti užduotį su naujais stimulų rinkiniais ir išmoko savarankiškai taikyti šio modelio mechanizmą ne tik mokymo(si), bet ir kitose socialinėse situacijose.


Keywords


autism spectrum disorder, verbal behaviour, joint stimulus control, receptive language teaching, single subject education /autizmo spektro sutrikimas;verbalinis elgesys;jungtinė stimulų kontrolė;kalbos suvokimo ugdymas;individualus ugdomasis eksperimentas

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21277/se.v1i38.372

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